الوقود الاحفوري

منذ فجر البشرية ، استخدم الناس مصادر الطاقة المتجددة للبقاء على قيد الحياة كالخشب للطهي والتدفئة ، وطاقة الرياح والمياه لطحن الحبوب ، والطاقة الشمسية للإضاءة. لكن منذ أكثر من 150 عامًا ، ابتكر الناس التكنولوجيا لاستخراج الطاقة من البقايا المتحجرة القديمة للنباتات والحيوانات. هذه المصادر الفائقة الثراء ولكنها محدودة للطاقة (الفحم الحجري والنفط والغاز الطبيعي) حلت بسرعة محل الأخشاب والرياح والطاقة الشمسية والمياه كمصادر رئيسية للوقود.

هذا الوقود يسمى الوقود الاحفوري (Fossil Fuel) و هو مصدر طاقة محدود و مع استخدامه الدائم سوف يتم نفاده. و المشكلة الكبيرة هي ان هذا الوقود يحتاج آلاف لا بل ملايين السنين لتجدده. اذاً يمكن اعتباره مصدر طاقة غير متجدد.

حرق الوقود ضار بالبيئة. عندما يتم حرق الفحم والنفط ، يطلقون جزيئات يمكنها تلويث الهواء والماء والأرض.

يؤدي حرق الوقود إلى إزعاج “ميزانية الكربون” الخاصة بالأرض ، والتي تعمل على موازنة الكربون في المحيط ، والأرض ، والهواء. عندما يتم تسخين الوقود ، يطلقون ثاني أكسيد الكربون في الجو. ثاني أكسيد الكربون هو غاز يحفظ الحرارة في الغلاف الجوي للأرض ، وهي عملية تسمى “تأثير الاحتباس الحراري”. إن تأثير الاحتباس الحراري ضروري للحياة على الأرض ، لكنه يعتمد على ميزانية متوازنة للكربون.

لقد تم عزل أو تخزين الكربون الموجود في الوقود تحت الأرض لملايين السنين. من خلال إزالة هذا الكربون المنفصل عن الأرض وإطلاقه في الجو ، فإن ميزانية الكربون الخاصة بالأرض سوف تصبح غير متوازنة. هذا يساهم في ارتفاع درجات الحرارة بشكل أسرع مما يمكن للكائنات الحية ان تتكيف

اهم ما يشغل العلماء و الهندسين و اصحاب الاختصاص هذه الايام هو الاحتباس الحراري (Global Warming). يُعرّف الاحتباس الحراري على أنّه ارتفاع بشكل تدريجي في درجات الحرارة في الطّبقة السفلى من الغلاف الجوّي للأرض خلال آخر مائة إلى مائتي عام، وذلك نتيجة الارتفاع في انبعاث الغازات الدّفينة (المعروفة أيضاً بغازات البيت الزجاجي) مثل: ثاني أكسيد الكربون، والميثان، والعديد من أنواعِ الغازات الأخرى.

إن زيادة درجات الحرارة العالمية ادت الى ارتفاع منسوب سطح البحر، وتغير كمية ونمط هطول الأمطار، التصحر، استمرار انحسار الأنهار الجليدية، والأراضي دائمة التجلد، والبحر المتجمد، مع تأثر منطقة القطب الشمالي بصورة خاصة. والآثار المحتملة الأخرى تشمل انكماش غابات الأمازون  و لاحظنا في الفترة الاخيرة كيف احترقت مساحات كبيرة من غابات الامازون و التي تعتبر رئة الارض.

تعتقد الهيئة العالميّة للتغيّر المناخي (IPCC) أنّ معظم الارتفاع الذي حدث لحرارة كوكب الأرض خلال النصف الثاني من القرن العشرين يُعزى بصُورةٍ واضحة إلى الأنشطة البشرية، وتُشير التوقّعات الحديثة إلى أنه في حال استمرار النشاط البشري على وتيرته الحالية فإنّ حرارة الأرض سترتفعُ بما قد يصل إلى 4.8 درجات مئوية عند نهاية القرن الواحد والعشرين، ممَّا ستكونُ له نتائج كارثيّة على حياة الإنسان والحيوان والنبات على وجه الكوكب.

اهم الحلول المقترحة لتقليل خطورة الاحتباس الحراري :

توجد أنواع وفئات عديدة من الحلول المقترحة لمجابهة الاحترار العالميّ، من أهمّها:

  • استخدام الطّاقة المتجددة: مثل الطاقة الشمسية، والمائية، وطاقة الرياح، والطاقة النووية. فاستهلاك الطاقة هو من أهمّ مصادر حرق الوقود الأحفوري وانبعاث الغازات الدفيئة، والحصول على مصادر نظيفة لها سوف يُخفّض هذه الانبعاثات كثيراً. و هذه المصادر هي من اهم المصادر التي يعمل عليها خلال الاعوام الماضية و التي يعوّل عليها في المستقبل. كل مصدر سوف يتم توسيعه و شرحه لاحقاً.
  • تقليل استهلاك النفط: من حيث زيادة كفاءة وسائل النقل والمواصلات؛ حيث يتم اختراع محرّكات وآلات تستهلك كميّة أقل من الوقود لقطع مسافات أكبر، وبالتالي تنخفض انبعاثات الغازات الدفيئة للغلاف الجوي.
  • زراعة الأشجار: ذلك للتقليل من خطورة غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون؛ حيث تستطيع الأشجار أن تحتفظ داخلها بنسبة من غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون في المناخ، وبالتالي تقلّل ثاني أكسيد الكربون الموجود في الجو وتعمل كمضاد مُباشر للاحترار العالمي، كما أنها تُعطي أثراً مُعاكساً لقطع وتدمير الغابات، الذي يُساهم حالياً بـ 30% من انبعاثات الغازات الدفيئة عالمياً.
  • http://world-economy-magazine.com/

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