تعريف البنك المركزي

لبنك المركزيّ البنك المركزيّ (بالإنجليزيّة: Central Bank) هو مُنظّمةٌ مُستقلّة تُلزمها حكومة الدولة بإدارة الوظائف الماليّة الرئيسيّة، مثل إصدار عملة الدولة، والمُحافظة على قيمتها النقديّة، والمساهمة في تنظيم كمية عرض النقد، ومُتابعة كافة العمليات الخاصّة بالمصارف التجاريّة،[١] ويُعرَّف البنك المركزيّ بأنّه المصرف الوطنيّ للدول، ويُساهم بتقديم مجموعةٍ من الخدمات المصرفيّة والماليّة لحكومة الدولة التي يتبع لها، ويَهتمّ بمُتابعة نظام البنوك التجاريّة، وتنفيذ السياسات الماليّة والنقديّة الخاصّة بالحكومة.[٢] من التعريفات الأخرى للبنك المركزيّ هو بنك يهتمُّ بوضع الخُطط الماليّة لحكومة الدولة، ويُساهم بتنفيذها، ويتحكّم بالأموال ضمن القطاع الاقتصاديّ.[٣] Volume 0%   نشأة البنك المركزيّ تعدُّ نشأة البنك المركزيّ مرحلةً متقدمةً من المراحل التي ساهمت بتطور البنوك التجاريّة في القرن التاسع عشر للميلاد؛ حيث إنّ المَصرف السويديّ المركزيّ أقدم بنك مركزيّ في العالم؛ إذ تمّ تأسيسه في عام 1656م، وأصبح بنكاً مركزيّاً للسويد في عام 1668م، ولكن يُعدُّ بنك إنجلترا المركزيّ الذي تمّ تأسيسه في عام 1694م الأول على مستوى العالم؛ من خلال تطبيقه لكافة الوظائف الخاصة بالبنك المركزيّ، وحرصه على تطوير مبادئ فن الصرافة البنكيّة، ومنذ ذلك الوقت انتشر هذا النوع من المصارف، وتحديداً في قارة أوروبا فظهرت بنوك مركزيّة في كلٍّ من النمسا، وهولندا، وفنلندا، وفرنسا، وغيرها من الدول الأخرى.[٤] شهد العالم العربيّ ظهور العديد من المصارف المركزيّة في كلٍّ من مصر، والجزائر، وتونس، ولبنان وغيرها من الدول العربيّة، وظلّت البنوك المركزيّة تشهد انتشاراً في القرن العشرين للميلاد؛ وخصوصاً بعد توصية مؤتمر بروكسيل في عام 1920م بضرورة تأسيس البنوك المركزيّة في كافة الدول؛ بهدف المُحافظة على تعزيز التعاون الدوليّ في مجال النقود، ودعم الاستقرار للعمليّة المصرفيّة.[٤] تطور البنك المركزيّ قبلَ القرن العشرين للميلاد لم تَكن عمليّات البنوك المركزيّة ذات نظامٍ نقديّ مُحدّد؛ إذ انحصر دورُها في إصدارِ الأوراقِ الماليّة الخاصّة بالدّول التابعة لها، ولكن مَع مرورِ الوقت اكتسب البنك المركزيّ العَديد من المهام، والوظائف، والواجبات التي ساهمت في مَنحه صفةَ العموميّة، وأيضاً أثّرت الأحداث الاقتصاديّة المُرتبطة بالأزمات الماليّة على تَطور البنك المركزيّ؛ إذ صار التّعامل مع السياسة النقديّة يَعتمد على أنّها جزء من أدوات السياسة الاقتصاديّة بشكل عام، كما أصبح البنك المركزيّ مسؤولاً عن تنفيذ هذه السياسة؛ ممّا ساهم في اكتِسابه لوظيفة الرقابة على الائتمان.[٤] خصائص البنك المركزيّ يتميّز البنك المركزيّ بمجموعة من الخصائص، وهي:[٥] يعدُّ البنك المركزيّ مؤسسة نقديّة تتبع لملكيّة عامة؛ إذ تتولى حكومات الدول إدارة البنك المركزيّ، والإشراف عليه عن طريق وضع مجموعة من القوانين التي تُحدّد بموجبها الواجبات والأهداف الخاصة به. يوجد البنك المركزيّ في صدارة الجهاز المصرفيّ؛ لأنّه يتمتع بسلطة رقابيّة على البنوك التجاريّة. لا يهتمّ البنك المركزيّ بتحقيق الأرباح، بلّ يعتمد وجوده على تَحقيق المصالح العامّة للدولة. يتميّز البنك المركزيّ بقُدرته على تحويل الأصول ذات الطبيعة الحقيقيّة أو الثابتة، مثل العقارات إلى أصول نقديّة. يعدّ البنك المركزيّ المؤسسة الماليّة التي تحتكر عمليّة إصدار النقود. يرتبط البنك المركزيّ بعلاقة قويّة مع البنوك التجاريّة، ويمتلك أساليب مُختلفة وسلطة للتأثير على فعاليات ونَشاطات هذه البنوك؛ ممّا يساهم بتحقيق السياسة الاقتصاديّة الخاصّة بالدولة. يُعدُّ البنك المركزيّ مؤسّسةً مُستقلةً بإدارة السياسة النقديّة، ولا تتدخّل السلطة التنفيذيّة بطبيعة عمله. وظائف البنك المركزيّ يَعتمد وجود البنك المركزيّ في الدول على تنفيذ مجموعةٍ من الوظائف الأساسيّة، ومنها:[٦] إصدار العملات النقديّة: هي الوظيفة الرئيسيّة والأساسيّة للبنك المركزيّ؛ لأنّه يُشكّل السلطة الوحيدة التي تمتلك صلاحيّة إصدار أوراق النقد، بالاعتماد على حصوله على مُوافقة الحكومة المتخصّصة، كما يَتحكّم البنك المركزيّ بشكل كامل في الكمية الإجماليّة للعملة المتداولة. بنك الحكومة: هي وَظيفة البنك المركزيّ بصفته بنكاً للحكومة، وَترتبط مع طبيعته الرسميّة التي تُميّزه عن باقي البنوك؛ إذ تحرص الحكومة على إيداع أموالها في البنك المركزيّ؛ بسبب كميّتها الضخمة التي تتناسب مع دور البنك المركزيّ بالمحافظة على الأموال الحكوميّة، كما يُساهم في تقديم خدمات أخرى للحكومة، مثل الاستشارات النقديّة والماليّة، ومتابعة الأسهم لوضع السياسة الماليّة العامة للدولة. بنك البنوك: هي الوظيفة المُرتبطة بالعُرف المصرفيّ الذي يشير إلى ضرورة احتفاظ البنوك التجاريّة بجزءٍ من احتياطاتها الماليّة كودائع في البنك المركزيّ؛ ممّا يساهم في تعزيز وظيفة البنك المركزيّ بفرض رقابته على الائتمان في المَصارف، وتسوية الديون التي يتمُّ تبادلها بين البنوك التجاريّة. مزاولة الأعمال المصرفيّة العاديّة: هي من الوَظائف التي يُطبّقها البنك المركزيّ ولا تشمل التعامل مع الأفراد والمنشآت؛ إلّا أنّ أغلب البنوك المركزيّة تَحتفظ بحدود مُعيّنة للتعامل مع العمليات المصرفيّة العاديّة؛ بسبب وجود مجموعة من المؤثرات المهمة، مثل طبيعة السوق النقديّ، وعدم كفاية عدد البنوك الموجودة في السوق المحليّ، لتنفيذ كافة الخدمات المصرفيّة ضمن القطاع المصرفيّ. استقلاليّة البنك المركزيّ تعدُّ استقلاليّة البنك المركزيّ من أهم الوسائل التي تضمن حماية القطاع المصرفيّ والماليّ من التأثيرات السياسيّة، وتُعرَّف استقلاليّة البنك المركزيّ بأنّها توفير العزل للسياسة النقديّة عن أيّ ضغوط سياسيّة مُستمرة، وتتمثل بتعيين قواعد للسياسة النقديّة تحدُّ من الحريّة الخاصّة بالبنك المركزيّ، ويُحقق البنك المركزيّ الاستقلاليّة ضمن الجهات الآتية:[٧] الاستقلال الإشرافيّ: هو تنفيذ القواعد، وإدارة الأزمات، وتوفير الحماية للمشرفين في البنك المركزيّ أثناء تنفيذهم لمسؤوليّاتهم. الاستقلال المؤسسيّ: هو إعداد ترتيبات واضحة لتعيين وإقالة كبار المُوظّفين، وتحديد الإدارة والهيكل التنظيميّ، والمسؤوليّات والأدوار الخاصّة بأعضاء مجلس الإدارة، وتطبيق الشفافيّة أثناء اتخاذ القرار في البنك المركزيّ. استقلال الموازنة: هو حريّة البنك المركزيّ في تعيين، وتدريب الموظفين، ودفع المكافآت لهم.

المراجع

“Central Bank”, Business Dictionary, Retrieved 6-5-2017. Edited. ↑ “Central Bank”, Oxford Dictionaries, Retrieved 6-5-2017. Edited. ↑ “Central Bank”, Cambridge Dictionary, Retrieved 6-5-2017. Edited. ^ أ ب ت ناجية عاشور (2013 – 2014)، دور البنك المركزيّ في إدارة السيولة النقدية، الجزائر: جامعة محمد خيضر، صفحة 5، 6، 7. بتصرّف. ↑ أمال العايب (2014 – 2015)، البنك المركزي ودوره في استقرار سعر الصرف، الجزائر: جامعة محمد خيضر، صفحة 6، 7، 8. بتصرّف. ↑ د. بان الصالحي، دور البنك المركزي في مالية الدولة، العراق: جامعة بغداد، صفحة 6، 7، 8، 9، 10، 11. بتصرّف. ↑ بحوصي مجذوب، استقلالية البنك المركزي بين قانون 10/90 والأمر 11/03، صفحة 5، 6. بتصرّف.

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