ما هي السوق السوداء للعملات

السوق السوداء للعملات تُعرف السوق السوداء للعملات (بالإنجليزية: Currency Black Markets) بأنّها السوق التي يكون فيها سعر صرف العملات الأجنبية أكثر بعدّة مرّات من سعرها في الأسواق الرسمية، ويسود نشاط السوق السوداء في العملات الأجنبية في البلدان التي تكون فيها العملات الأجنبية القابلة للتحويل شحيحة، أو عند وجود رقابة صارمة على النقد الأجنبي، بحيث يتمّ انتهاك أسعار الصرف الرسميّة بين العملات،[١] وذلك نتيجة الأساسات الاقتصادية الضعيفة في الدولة، حيث يتمّ ربط العملة المحليّة بعملة ذات مستوى عالٍ وغير واقعيّ؛ كالدولار الأمريكي وغيره من العملات القويّة.[٢] أسباب ظهور السوق السوداء للعملات ازدهرت الأسواق السوداء للعملات في العديد من البلدان نتيجة عدم الاستقرار السياسي في البلاد وكثرة الاحتجاجات العنيفة، ويوجد العديد من الأسباب التي أدّت إلى ظهور أسواق العملات السوداء غير القانونية، ومن أهمّها ما يأتي:[٣] ضعف الأساسات الاقتصادية في الدولة؛ كارتفاع معدّلات التضخم، ومحدوديّة احتياطات النقد الأجنبي. فرض ضوابط صارمة على العملات، ممّا يحدّ من كميّة العملات الأجنبية المتاحة للمقيمين في الدولة. فرض نظام سعر صرف ثابت في الدولة، بحيث يتمّ ربط سعر صرف العملة المحلية بسعر صرف مرتفع وغير واقعيّ؛ كالدولار الأمريكي، أو أيّ عملة عالميّة أخرى. انعدام الثقة بين المواطنين في قيمة العملة المحلية. خصائص السوق السوداء للعملات تتصف الأسواق السوداء باتباع سياسات غير قانونيّة في تقديم السلع والخدمات، وتُعدّ العملات من أبرز ما يتمّ تداوله في الأسواق السوداء، بحيث يتمّ تجنّب تطبيق القوانين عليها، والتهرّب من الالتزام المصرفيّ والسلطات الضريبيّة، فوفق دراسة أسترالية أُجريت في عام 2018م، تبيّن أنّ 72 مليار دولاراً من الأنشطة غير القانونية تستخدم عملة البتكوين الافتراضية.[٤] كما تشتهر الأسواق السوداء بغسيل الأموال من خلال عمليّات تهدف إلى نقل الأموال الصادرة من الأعمال غير المشروعة عن طريق العديد من الأعمال التي تبدو مشروعةً لإخفاء مسار الأموال، ممّا يُضلّل مسؤولي الالتزامات المصرفيّة، ولا يُمكّنهم من التعرّف على ماهية تلك الأموال، ويتمّ غسيل الأموال من خلال ثلاث خطوات وهي كالآتي:[٤] إيداع الأموال في نظام ماليّ بحيث لا يتمّ جذب الانتباه إليها، أمّا بالنسبة للمبالغ الكبيرة فيتمّ تحقيق مكاسب غير قانونيّة بأموال صادرة من عمل قانونيّ. إنشاء شركات خارجية تُستخدم فقط لغسل الأموال، بحيث يتمّ إخفاء مصدر، وملكية، وموقع الأموال. دمج الأموال في المجتمع على شكل ممتلكات تبدو مشروعة، حيث يستخدم العديد منها في شراء العقارات.

↑ Amy Tikkanen, “Black Market”، www.britannica.com, Retrieved 29-5-2019. Edited. ↑ WILL KENTON (25-3-2019), “Black Market”، www.investopedia.com, Retrieved 29-5-2019. Edited. ↑ “Currency Trading On The Black Market”, www.investopedia.com,12-3-2013، Retrieved 29-5-2019. Edited. ^ أ ب KIMBERLY AMADEO (4-3-2019), “The Black Economy and Its Impact”، www.thebalance.com, Retrieved 29-5-2019. Edited.

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