“بطاقة التمويل” لن تشمل العائلات التي يزيد متوسّط دخل الفرد فيها على مليونَي ليرة

مشروع بطاقة الدعم المالي سلك طريقه نحو اللجان المشتركة، لكنّ أحداً لم يعلن حتى اليوم من أين تموّل هذه البطاقة. عملياً، لا مصدر سوى الاحتياطي الإلزامي، إلا أن الكتل النيابية لا تزال تتحفّظ على هذا الخيار أسوة بمصرف لبنان. ما تقدّم ليس المشكلة الوحيدة التي تواجه المشروع. تحديد الأسر المستفيدة، وفق الآلية التي وضعت، يحتاج إلى أشهر طويلة ليُنفّذ، أضف إلى أنه لن يكون قادراً على تعويض إلغاء الدعم. تريد الحكومة من البطاقة أن تتحول إلى برنامج جديد للأسر الأكثر فقراً، مفترضة أن هذا الوصف ينطبق على ثلثي اللبنانيين (750 ألف عائلة). لكنها في المقابل، تعتبر أن من يتقاضى راتباً يفوق المليونَي ليرة، أو من لديه معيل في الخارج، ليس أهلاً للبطاقة!
بعدما أحال رئيس الجمهورية ميشال عون مشروع قانون البطاقة التمويلية إلى مجلس النواب، لم يتأخر الرئيس نبيه بري في تحويله إلى اللجان المشتركة لدرسه. مع ذلك، فإن هذا المسار لن يكون سهلاً، بحسب مصادر المجلس. وبالرغم من أن المشروع لا يحتمل التأجيل، فإن اللجان لن تبدأ بدراسته فوراً، «نظراً إلى اكتظاظ جدول أعمالها»، بحسب مصادر المجلس. هذا ما اعتبرته مصادر نيابية إشارة واضحة من رئيس المجلس إلى أنه «مش ماشي الحال»، والمشروع بصيغته الراهنة سيكون محل خلاف كبير. لكن مع ذلك، تجزم المصادر أن المجلس لن يكون قادراً على «تطنيش» المشروع لفترة طويلة، كما لن تكون الكتل النيابية قادرة على إشهار رفضها للبطاقة، حتى لو كان موقفها نابعاً من أسباب موضوعية، أبرزها عدم وجود تمويل واضح لها.

وهي مشكلة يُتوقع أن تبقى حتى بعد إقرار المجلس للقانون. فالقيمة الفعلية للبطاقة هي نحو ألف و200 مليون دولار، وهذا يقارب 15 ألف مليار ليرة، وليس 1800 مليار ليرة كما جاء في المشروع. لذلك، فإنه لا بديل سوى بموافقة مصرف لبنان على تحويل هذا المبلغ إلى الدولار وفق السعر الرسمي، إلا إذا كان البديل تحويل البطاقة إلى الليرة، مع ما يعنيه ذلك من إمكانية الوصول إلى حالة التضخم المفرط. من أين يأتي المصرف المركزي بالأموال، إذا لم يكن من الاحتياطي، الذي تزعم الكتل رفضها المس به، رغم أنها سكتت عن إهدار ودائع بعشرات مليارات الدولارات؟ تلك دائرة مغلقة ستكون بلا حل، وخاصة أن سلامة أيضاً يرفض المس بالاحتياطي بحجة حماية أموال المودعين، فيما كل التقارير الآتية من الوكالات الدولية تؤكد أنه يتم حالياً السحب من الاحتياطي. أضف إلى ذلك أن رئيس الحكومة يذكر أنه سبق لسلامة أن أبلغه أنه يمكن الصمود حتى نهاية آخر قرش في الاحتياطي. بالنتيجة، فإن المسؤولية، وبعدما تقاذفها الجميع، يفترض أن تصل إلى مصرف لبنان. إذا وافق على تمويل البطاقة، فسيكون هو من مسّ بأموال المودعين، وإذا رفض فسيتحمّل مسؤولية فشل مشروع البطاقة، وبالتالي تحمّل تبعات ترشيد الدعم من دون وجود بديل. وهو ما يتجنبه سلامة بشدة. يبقى احتمال أن يتفق الجميع في المجلس على تغطية الصرف من الاحتياطي الإلزامي، أو تحويل عملة البطاقة إلى الليرة، مع ما يعنيه ذلك من مخاطر على سعر الصرف والتضخم.

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