سياسة حماية لدعم الإنتاج اللبناني

صادق البرلمان اللبناني على مشروع القانون الصادر بالمرسوم رقم 12851 تاريخ 3/7/2004 الرامي إلى إلغاء المرسوم التشريعي رقم 31 تاريخ 5/8/1967 بشأن مكافحة الإغراق واستبداله بـ “قانون حماية المواطن” الإنتاج “بصيغته المعدلة من قبل اللجان البرلمانية المشتركة.
ينطبق هذا القانون على الممارسات التجارية الدولية التي تسبب أو تهدد بإحداث إصابات خطيرة للصناعة أو الزراعة المحلية في لبنان أو تؤخر إنشاء صناعة أو زراعة محلية قيد الإنشاء ، وتحديداً من خلال الإغراق والإعانات التي تمنحها حكومات مصدري منتج زراعي أو صناعي معين للبنان. كما ينطبق القانون على زيادة الواردات التي تسبب ، أو تهدد بإحداث ، إصابات خطيرة للصناعة أو الزراعة المحلية في لبنان والتي تستتبع فرض تدابير وقائية.
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ولأول مرة في تاريخ لبنان ، طورت وزارة الداخلية رؤية متكاملة (لبنان ، الصناعة 2025) ، وخطة استراتيجية تشغيلية (2016-2020) وخطط تشغيلية سنوية تتضمن سياسة حمائية داعمة ورعاية الإنتاج الصناعي اللبناني. عانى الاقتصاد اللبناني دائمًا من إغراق المنتجات الأجنبية المتنافسة التي تفوق إلى حد بعيد قدرة لبنان الاستيعابية والاستيعابية.
كانت المخاوف بشأن العلاقات الخارجية للبنان لفترة طويلة السبب الرئيسي لترك أسواق البلاد مفتوحة على نطاق واسع أمام المنتجات الأجنبية التي أغرقت أسواقها مما تسبب في أضرار جسيمة للقطاع الصناعي اللبناني.
في عام 2017 ، أعدت وزارة الداخلية 23 ملفًا صناعيًا لتصنيف أنواع المشكلات التي يواجهها عدد من المنتجات الصناعية التي كانت ولا تزال مُغرمة ، إلى جانب سياسات الحماية مثل فرض تعريفات عادلة محددة على المنتجات المستوردة تختلف من حيث الكم والنوع ، وكذلك فرض أسعار ثابتة على سلع معينة.
حددت الوزارة المنتجات الأكثر عرضة للإغراق التي سيتم تضمينها في التعريفات المحددة: الصلب والألمنيوم والصناعات الورقية ورقائق البطاطس ومنتجات الألبان (الحليب والأجبان البيضاء) والبرغل والدجاج والبيض والحجارة المقطعة والملابس والمجوهرات ، الأحذية والبلاستيك والمعكرونة والدقيق والصناعات الحرفية.
يجب أن تخضع المواد والسلع المذكورة أعلاه لتعريفات محددة دون أي تمييز بين الدول المصدرة التي تتخلص من منتجاتها في السوق اللبنانية دون أي رسوم.
سيؤدي فرض تعريفات محددة على السلع الـ 23 المذكورة أعلاه إلى تقليل العجز في الميزان التجاري اللبناني ، من 16.739 مليار دولار في عام 2017 إلى حوالي 10 مليارات دولار ، عن طريق خفض الواردات من 19.5 مليار دولار إلى حوالي 15 مليار دولار وزيادة الصادرات من 3 مليارات دولار إلى 5 دولارات مليار.
منذ عام 2015 ، تجري الوزارة تقييماً لاتفاقية الشراكة الأوروبية واتفاقية تسهيل وتشجيع التجارة البينية العربية لإعادة النظر في مخرجاتهما ووضع مصالح لبنان في المقام الأول.
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يتم اتخاذ الإجراءات مع أصحاب المصلحة في أوروبا والدول العربية لتصحيح العمليات
.
ولا تعترض الوزارة على أي اتفاقيات دولية يلتزم بها لبنان لأنها تحمي الإنتاج الوطني في حالة الإغراق الذي عانى منه لبنان منذ عقود. على الرغم من حق لبنان في حماية إنتاجه من الإغراق ، إلا أنه لم يلجأ إلى أي إجراءات حمائية لأنه يخشى توتر العلاقات التجارية مع الدول العربية والأجنبية.
أكبر عجز تجاري في لبنان مع دول معينة حسب أرقام وزارة الداخلية لعام 2017: الاتحاد الأوروبي – الصين – إيطاليا – الولايات المتحدة – ألمانيا – فرنسا – تركيا – مصر – أوكرانيا
الجدول 2: التبادل التجاري بين لبنان والعالم

Table 3: Lebanon’s largest trade deficit with certain countries in 2017:

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