مفهوم المواطنة

قد يخطئ العديدون عندما يُعرّفون المواطنة على أنها حب الوطن، فهذا التعريف مرتبط بمصطلح آخر وهو الوطنيّة، في حين أن المواطنة تعرف على أنّها: الصفة التي تُمنح للمواطن والتي تتحدد بموجبها عدة أمور منها؛ الحقوق، والواجبات. ومن هنا فإن للمواطنة خصوصيّة ليست لأي صفة أخرى، فهي تتضمن انتماء المواطن لوطنه النابع من حبه له، وخدمته له في كافة الأوقات والأحيان، واحترام المواطنين الآخرين الذين يعيشون معه على الأرض ذاتها، والذين يتقاسم وإياهم الغذاء، والشراب، والماضي، والحاضر، والمستقبل. [١] وتعتبر المواطنة علاقة محددة ضمن القانون المعمول به في الدولة، حيث تربط هذه العلاقة بين الدولة بكافة أركانها، وبين الإنسان الذي مُنح صفة مواطن. وقد فرّقت بعض الجهات بين مفهومي الجنسيّة والمواطنة، حيث إنّ الجنسية تعطي للمواطن حقوقاً إضافيّة؛ كحق حمايته وهو في الخارج من أي اعتداء، في حين لم تفرّق جهات أخرى بين هذين المفهومين.

العوامل المحددة لمواطنة المواطن تتحدّد مواطنة المواطن من خلال العديد من العوامل والتي على رأسها الولادة على أرض الوطن، يلي ذلك جنسية الوالدين؛ وهنا تجدر الإشارة إلى أنّ بعض الدول تمنح الجنسية لشخص ما إذا كان أي من والديه حاملاً لهذه الجنسية، في حين اقتصرت بعض الدول على منح الجنسية فقط في حال كان الوالد حاملاً لها.[٢] ومن العوامل الهامة أيضاً عامل الزواج، فبعض الأشخاص يتزوّجون ممن يحمل جنسيّة معينة بغرض الحصول على الجنسية فقط. وأخيراً تمنح بعض الدول الجنسية بناء على ما يُعرف بالتجنيس، وفي هذه الحالة فإنه يتوجّب على الشخص الراغب في الحصول على جنسيّة الدولة المانحة أن يدخل البلاد بشكل قانونيّ، وأن يقيم فيها، وأن ينفّذ كافة التعليمات الصادرة عن المؤسسات المعنيّة في هذه الدولة والتي تمنح بموجبها الجنسية للراغبين، وقد تتضمّن هذه التعليمات النجاح في بعض الاختبارات التي ترى الدولة أنّها ضرورية وهامة للعيش فيها، هذا وقد تمنح الدول الجنسيّة لمن يطلب اللجوء إليها سياسياً. المواطنة في الوعي العام قد يبدو مصطلح المواطنة هجيناً، أو مستغرباً لدى البعض، والسبب في ذلك يعود إلى عدم وعي الناس بأبعاد هذا المصطلح، وهنا تكمن مسؤوليّة مؤسسات المجتمع المدنيّ، والتي يجب أن تعنى بهذا الأمر، وأن تجعل مفهوم المواطنة واضحاً لدى الجميع، فكل المواطنين الذين يعيشون على أرض الدولة هم شركاء في المغنم والمغرم، ولا مجال إلا للعمل المشترك من أجل البناء والعطاء. [٣] كما ويجب على الناس في شتى أصقاع المعمورة أن يعوا تماماً أنّ المواطنة تتعدى حاجز الدولة الضيق إلى العالميّة، فالإنسان مرتبط بطبيعته بعدة انتماءات، والأرض هي الموطن الأول والأخير لأبنائها، لذا فإنّ وعي مفهوم المواطنة العالمية له أكبر الأثر في عيش سكان الأرض عيشة كريمة، خالية من المنغصات.

د. عالء الدين عبد الرزاق جنكو، “المـواطــنة بين السياسة الشرعية والتحديات المعاصرة “، www.neelain.edu.sd، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 14/6/2018. بتصرّف. ↑ “أثر الضغوط الوظيفية على المواطنة التنظيمية”، www.mohe.gov.sy، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 14/6/2018. بتصرّف. ↑ د.محمد بن خليفة اسماعيل (1434هـ – 2013م)، “المواطنة.. وتعزيز العمل التطوعي”، www.pnu.edu.sa، اطّلع عليه بتاريخ 14/6/2018. بتصرّف.

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