حكاية غالون الزيت:وصفةالاشتباك!

ما كان أحد ليتوقّع أن تتصدّر “حكاية إبريق الزيت” بنسخة معدّلة معالم الانهيار الاقتصادي في لبنان. فالحكاية الأصلية ترتبط بطرفة أو أحجية تقوم على مناكفة الجدّات لأحفادهم الذين يستعصي عليهم النوم ليحملنهم على الاستسلام له، وغدت فيما بعد مثلاً يدلّ على التململ وتضييع الوقت لتعجيز شخص… وهي الحكاية التي لا تروى، بل تبقى في دوّامة التقديم لها، حتى الضجر.
حكاية انهيار لبنان تشبه الحكاية الأصلية. إذ يعتمد المسؤولون فيه أسلوب المناكفة واستهلاك الوقت لتعجيز اللبنانيّين وتيئيسهم. لكنّ المفارقة أنّ حكاية الزيت، وتحديداً غالونات الزيت المدعوم، تصدّرت “حكاية إبريق الزيت” اللبنانية، حين تحوّل الزيت إلى مادة للصراع بين اللبنانيّين في طوابير أمام وداخل السوبرماركت، للحصول على حصّة منه بسعر مدعوم. وكشفت حكاية اللبنانيين مع الزيت أهمّيّة هذه السلعة التي ما كان أحد ليظن أنّها ستتصدّر السلع التي يخشى اللبنانيون انقطاعها من الأسواق، أو يخشون ارتفاع أسعارها، إلى درجة يصبح معها صعباً الحصول عليها، بعدما خسر معظمهم قيمة أجورهم بسبب انهيار سعر صرف الليرة اللبنانية.
الزيت إذاً، وليس الخبز، هو الذي تصدّر المشهد. وكل الإشكالات والتدافع والهجمات على المخازن، حدثت بسبب الزيت، ولم يجرِ الحديث عن أيّ سلعة ثانية في خضمّ الصراع على الزيت المدعوم. والزيت الذي نتحدّث عنه، هو زيت القلي. وغالباً يكون مستخرجاً إمّا من الذرة وإمّا من زهرة دوّار الشمس. وهو يستخدم غالباً في الطبخ، وخصوصاً في إعداد “المقالي” من بطاطا وقرنبيط وكوسا وباذنجان وسواها. فضلاً عن استخدامه في معظم الطبخات: في “اليخاني” والأرز. وهو يشكّل مادة أساسية للاستخدام في مطبخ الوجبات السريعة، إن في المطاعم وإن في البيوت. وهو “يخدم” أكثر من مرّة، إذ يمكن أن تُقلى به البطاطا، مثلاً، مرّات ومرّات، ويكون حلاً سهلاً وسريعاً تلجأ إليه الأمّهات لإعداد وجبات دسمة وسريعة يحبّها الأطفال وقادرة على إشباعهم، وأحياناً على إسكات جوعهم بملء بطونهم بالبطاطا والزيت.
طبعاً يستورد لبنان هذا الزيت بكمّيّات كبيرة، وتدعم الدولة الزيت باعتباره سلعةً أساسية. وبدأ الإقبال يزداد عليه لتخزينه مع الحديث عن رفع الدعم، خصوصاً مع ظهور زيوت غير مدعومة في السوق وصلت أسعارها إلى أرقام خياليّة. وبات اللبنانيّون مع الارتفاع الجنونيّ في الأسعار يُعرضون عن شراء ماركات لزيوت القلي شاعت واشتهرت، حتى إنها حضرت في أوائل الألفيّة الجديدة في أغنية شهيرة لزياد الرحباني (ولّعت كتير- 2001): “ما في لوسيور ولا جايب مازولا”. وهذان الصنفان بدآ يصيران نادرين على رفوف السوبرماركت بسبب تراجع استيرادهما لعدم شمولهما بالدعم الذي رُفع عن أنواع كثيرة من الزيوت وبات يقتصر على بعض الأصناف ذات النوعية “الرديئة” مقارنة مع الماركات العالمية، أو قُل: الأقلّ جودةً.
هذه الأصناف تحتوي على نسب عالية من الكوليسترول وتخضع لدرجة عالية من الهدرجة تجعلها غير صحّيّة. طبعاً ينصح خبراء التغذية بعدم تناول الزيوت المخصّصة للقلْي، واستخدام الزيوت نيئة كما هي الحال مع زيت الزيتون الذي ينتجه لبنان. لكنّ أسعاره باتت مرتفعة جداً، وبات يُسعّر في السوق اللبنانية بالدولار. فوصل سعر تنكة (20 ليتر) زيت الزيتون إلى ما يقارب خمسين دولاراً أميركيّاً بحسب تسعيرة السوق السوداء للدولار، أي ما يقارب الحدّ الأدنى للأجور، قريباً من 675 ألف ليرة. وهو ما يضطر اللبنانيّين إلى استبدال زيت الزيتون بزيوت نباتية أخرى لاستخدامه في معظم أصناف الطبخ اللبناني. وسيصير الأكل “الصحّي” ترفاً لا تقدر عليه إلا قلّة قليلة.
جمعية حماية المستهلك سجّلت، كما يقول رئيسها زهير برّو، عمليات غشّ كبيرة تطول الزيوت، ولا ينجو منها زيت الزيتون. ولم يُفاجأ برّو بمشاهد تدافع اللبنانيين للحصول على الزيت، لأنها مادّة أساسية، و”نضعها في الجمعية على رأس السلع التي تحتاج إليها العائلات”. فهي تُستخدم، بحسب برو، في جميع مأكولات المطبخ اللبناني التقليدي، من اليخنات إلى السَلَطات والفتّوش والتبّولة، ويُخلَط بالصعتر (الزعتر) ويُستخدَم في إعداد المناقيش. وكلّها أصناف يعتمد عليها الأكل اللبناني اليوميّ البسيط، الذي كان في ما مضى متوافراً و”رخيصاً” بسبب الدعم، وبات يتجاوز القدرة الشرائية لمعظم اللبنانيين
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